Resources

For resources that are available online, you may download a PDF (you will need Acrobat Reader) or follow the access link. For other resources, an email link is provided to request the publication. The publications are shown in reverse chronological order.
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Research Articles and Reviews:

Gómez AM, McCullough C, Hoff C. Expectations of future provision of pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraception in California. Am J Obstet Gynecol. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.02.006

Grindlay K, Grossman D. Interest in over-the-counter access to a progestin-only pill among women in the United States. Women’s Health Issues. 2018, Mar-Apr; 28(2):144–151.
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Gómez AM. Availability of pharmacist-prescribed contraception in California, 2017. JAMA. 2017, Dec; 318(6):634–640.
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Upadhya K, Santelli J, Raine-Bennett T, Kottke M, Grossman D. Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives for adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2017, June; 60(6):634–640.
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Yang YT, Kozhimannil KB, Snowden JM. Pharmacist-prescribed birth control in Oregon and other states. JAMA. 2016 Apr; 315(15):1567-8.
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Grindlay K, Grossman D. Prescription birth control access among U.S. women at risk of unintended pregnancy. Journal of Women’s Health. 2016 Mar; 25(3):249-54.
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Rafie S, Kelly S, Gray EK, Wong M, Gibbs S, Harper CC. Provider opinions regarding expanding access to hormonal contraception in pharmacies. Womens Health Issues. 2016 Mar-Apr; 26(2):153-60.
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Grossman D. Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 2015 Dec; 42(4):619-29.
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Grossman D. The potential impact of over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives to reduce unintended pregnancy. American Family Physician. 2015 Dec; 92(11):968-9.
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Barot S. Moving oral contraceptives to over-the-counter status: Policy versus politics. Guttmacher Policy Review. 2015; 18(4).
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Baum S, Burns B, Davis L, Yeung M, Scott C, Grindlay K, Grossman D. Perspectives among a diverse sample of women on the possibility of obtaining oral contraceptives over the counter: A qualitative study. Women’s Health Issues. 2016 Mar-Apr; 26(2):147-52.
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Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies on Endometrial Cancer. Endometrial cancer and oral contraceptives: an individual participant meta-analysis of 27,276 women with endometrial cancer from 36 epidemiological studies. The Lancet. 2015 Sep; 16(9):1061–1070.

Manski R, Kottke M. A survey of teenagers’ attitudes toward moving oral contraceptives over the counter. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2015; 47(3).

Foster DG, Biggs MA, Phillips KA, Grindlay K, Grossman D. Potential public sector cost-savings from over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. Contraception. 2015;91(5):373-9.
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Grindlay K, Grossman D. Women’s perspectives on age restrictions for over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. J Adolescent Health. 2015;56(1):38-43.
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Wahlin B, Grindlay K, Grossman D. Should oral contraceptives be available over the counter? Food and Drug Policy Forum. March 2014;4(3).
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Grindlay K, Foster DG, Grossman D. Attitudes toward over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives among a sample of abortion clients in the United States. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2014;46(2):83-9.
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Xu H, Eisenberg DL, Madden T, Secura GM, Peipert JF. Medical contraindications in women seeking combined hormonal contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Mar;210(3):210.e1-5.
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Grossman D, Fuentes L. Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives as a reproductive healthcare strategy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2013;25(6):500-5.
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Grimes DA, Lopez LM, O’Brien PA, Raymond EG. Progestin-only pills for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 11:CD007541.

Grossman D. Should women have over-the-counter access to oral contraceptive pills? Expert Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2013;8(5):389-91.
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McIntosh J, Wahlin B, Grindlay K, Batchelder M, Grossman D. Insurance and access implications of an over-the-counter switch for a progestin-only pill. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2013;45(3):164-9.
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Havrilesky LJ, Moorman PG, Lowery WJ, et al. Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(1):139-47.

Brahmi D, Curtis KM. When can a woman start combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs)?: A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):524-38.

Steenland MW, Rodriguez MI, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM. How does the number of oral contraceptive pill packs dispensed or prescribed affect continuation and other measures of consistent and correct use? A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):605-10.

Steenland MW, Zapata LB, Brahmi D, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM. Appropriate follow up to detect potential adverse events after initiation of select contraceptive methods: A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):611-24.

Steenland MW, Zapata LB, Brahmi D, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM. The effect of follow-up visits or contacts after contraceptive initiation on method continuation and correct use. Contraception. 2013;87(5):625-30.

Tepper NK, Curtis KM, Steenland MW, Marchbanks PA. Blood pressure measurement prior to initiating hormonal contraception: A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):631-38.

Tepper NK, Steenland MW, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM. Laboratory screening prior to initiating contraception: A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):645-49.

Tepper NK, Curtis KM, Steenland MW, Marchbanks PA. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):650-54.

Grindlay K, Burns B, Grossman D. Prescription requirements and over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives: A global review. Contraception. 2013;88(1):91-6.
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Zapata LB, Steenland MW, Brahmi D, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM. Patient understanding of oral contraceptive pill instructions related to missed pills: A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):674-84.

Grossman D, Grindlay K, Li R, Potter JE, Trussell J, Blanchard K. Interest in over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives among women in the United States. Contraception. 2013;88(4):544-52.

Bitzer J. Statement on combined hormonal contraceptives containing third- or fourth-generation progestogens or cyproterone acetate, and the associated risk of thromboembolism. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2013;18(3):143-47.

Shapiro S. Combined hormonal contraceptives and the risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism and cardiovascular death: misuse of automated databases. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2013;39(2):89-96.

Grossman D. Moving oral contraceptives over-the-counter as a strategy to reduce unintended pregnancy. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(11):839-40.
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Rafie S, McIntosh J, Gardner DK, Gawronski KM, Karaoui LR, Koepf ER, Lehman KJ, McBane S, Patel-Shori NM. Over-the-counter access to emergency contraception without age restriction: An opinion of the women’s health practice and research network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33(5):549-57.

Tepper NK, Curtis KM, Steenland MW, Marchbanks PA. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: A systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87(5):650-54.

Parsons J, Adams C, Aziz N, Holmes J, Jawad R, Whittlesea C. Evaluation of a community pharmacy delivered oral contraception service. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2013;39(2):97-101.

Schwarz EB, Burch EJ, Parisi SM, Tebb KP, Grossman D, Mehrotra A, et al. Computer-assisted provision of hormonal contraception in acute care settings. Contraception. 2013;87(2):242-250.

Rafie S, Haycock M, Rafie S, Yen S, Harper CC. Direct pharmacy access to hormonal contraception: California physician and advanced practice clinician views. Contraception. 2012;86(6):687-93.

Zhu H, Lei X, Feng J, Wang Y. Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2012;17(6):402-14.

Howard D, Wall J, Strickland J. Physician attitudes toward over the counter availability for oral contraceptives. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17(10):1737-43.
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Egan KR, Gleason CE. Longer duration of hormonal contraceptive use predicts better cognitive outcomes later in life. J Womens Health. 2012;21(12):1259-66.

Lessard LN, Karasek D, Ma S, Darney P, Deardorff J, Lahiff M, Grossman D, Foster DG. Contraceptive features preferred by women at high risk of unintended pregnancy. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012;44(3):194-200.
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Warholm L, Petersen KR, Ravn P.. Combined oral contraceptives’ influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years: a systematic review. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2012;17(4):245-53.

Liang S-Y, Grossman D, Phillips K. User characteristics and out-of-pocket expenditures for progestin-only versus combined oral contraceptives. Contraception. 2012;86(6):666-72.
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Mantha S, Karp R, Raghavan V, Terrin N, Bauer KA, Zwicker JI. Assessing the risk of venous thromboembolic events in women taking progestin-only contraception: a meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012 August 7;345:e4944.
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Petitti DB. Hormonal contraceptives and arterial thrombosis — Not risk-free but safe enough (editorial). NEJM. 2012;366(24):2316-8.

Lidegaard Ø, Løkkegaard E, Jensen A, Skovlund CW, Keiding N. Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraception. NEJM. 2012;366(24):2257-66.

Dennis A, Grossman D. Barriers to contraception and interest in over-the-counter access among low-income women: A qualitative study. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012 June;44(2).
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Hopkins K, Grossman D, White K, Amastae J, Potter JE. Reproductive health preventive screening among clinic vs. over-the-counter oral contraceptive users. Contraception. 2012 Oct;86(4):376-82.
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Wilkinson TA, Fahey N, Shields C, Suther E, Cabral HJ, Silverstein M. Pharmacy communication to adolescents and their physicians regarding access to emergency contraception. Pediatrics. 2012;129(4).

White K, Potter JE, Hopkins K, Fernández L, Amastae J, Grossman D. Contraindications to progestin-only oral contraceptive pills among reproductive-aged women. Contraception. 2012 Sep;86(3):199-203.
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Rafie S, El-Ibiary SY. Student pharmacist perspectives on providing pharmacy-access hormonal contraception services. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2011;51(6):762-65.

Grossman D. Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2011;6(5):501-8.
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White KO, Westhoff C. The effect of pack supply on oral contraceptive pill continuation: A randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(3):615-22.

Chakhtoura Z, Canonico M, Gompel A, et al. Progestogen-only contraceptives and the risk of acute myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(4):1169-74.

Foster DG, Hulett D, Bradsberry M, et al. Number of oral contraceptive pill packages dispensed and subsequent unintended pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:566-72.
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Grimes DA, Schulz KF. Nonspecific side effects of oral contraceptives: nocebo or noise? Contraception. 2011;83:5-9.

Grossman D, White K, Hopkins K, et al. Contraindications to combined oral contraceptives among over-the-counter compared with prescription users. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:558-65.
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Liang S-Y, Grossman D, Phillips KA. Women’s out-of-pocket expenditures and dispensing patterns for oral contraceptive pills between 1996 and 2006. Contraception. 2011;83(6):528-36.
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McIntosh J, Rafie S, Wasik M, McBane S, Lodise NM, El-Ibiary SY, et al. Changing oral contraceptives from prescription to over-the-counter status: An opinion statement of the Women’s Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy. 2011 Apr;31(4):424-37.
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Potter JE, McKinnon S, Hopkins K, Amastae J, Shedlin MG, Powers DA, Grossman D. Continuation of prescribed compared with over-the-counter oral contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:551-7.
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Westhoff CL, Jones HE, Guiahi M. Do new guidelines and technology make the routine pelvic examination obsolete? J Womens Health. 2011;20(1):5-10.

Wise A, O’Brien K, Woodruff T. Are oral contraceptives a significant contributor to the estrogenicity of drinking water? Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011;45(1):51–60
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Grossman D, Fernández L, Hopkins K, Amastae J, Potter JE. Perceptions of the safety of oral contraceptives among a predominantly Latina population in Texas. Contraception. 2010 Mar;81:254–60.
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Hannaford PC, Iversen L, Macfarlane TV, Elliott AM, Angus V, Lee AJ. Mortality among contraceptive pill users: cohort evidence from Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraceptive Study. BMJ. 2010 Mar;340:c927.
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Henderson JT, Sawaya GF, Blum M, Stratton L, Harper CC. Pelvic examinations and access to oral hormonal contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(6):1257-64.

Potter JE, White K, Hopkins K, Amastae J, Grossman D. Clinic versus over-the-counter access to oral contraception: choices women make along the US-Mexico border. Am J Public Health. 2010 Jun;100(6):1130-6.
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Fitzpatrick M. Caveat emptor. Br J Gen Pract. 2009;59(560):217.
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Grossman D, Jarvis S. Should the contraceptive pill be available without prescription? BMJ. 2009;338:202-3.
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Landau S, Besinque K, Chung F, Dries-Daffner I, Maderas NM, Taylor-McGhee B, et al. Pharmacist interest in and attitudes toward direct pharmacy access to hormonal contraception in the United States. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2009 Jan-Feb;49(1):43-50.
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Krishnamurti T, Eggers SL, Fischhoff B. The impact of over-the-counter availability of “Plan B” on teens’ contraceptive decision making. Soc Sci Med. 2008 Aug;67(4):618-27.

Barot S. Making the case for a ‘contraceptive convenience’ agenda. Guttmacher Policy Review. 2008;11(4):11-6.
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Gardner JS, Miller L, Downing DF, Le S, Blough D, Shotorbani S. Pharmacist prescribing of hormonal contraceptives: results of the Direct Access study. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2008 Mar-Apr;48(2):212-21; 5 p following 21.

Grossman D, Cackovic M, Paidas M. Viewpoints: Should oral contraceptives be sold over?the?counter? Contemporary Ob/Gyn. 2008 Sep:63-74.
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Grossman D, Fernandez L, Hopkins K, Amastae J, Garcia SG, Potter JE. Accuracy of self?screening for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive use. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep;112(3):572-8.
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Kishen M, Guthrie K, Robinson C, Dewart P, Elliman A. Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. Lancet. 2008 May 17;371:1663.

Nelson AL, Westhoff C, Schnare SM. Real-world patterns of prescription refills for branded hormonal contraceptives: a reflection of contraceptive discontinuation. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Oct;112(4):782-7.

Shiffman S, Sweeney CT. Ten years after the Rx-to-OTC switch of nicotine replacement therapy: what have we learned about the benefits and risks of non-prescription availability? Health Policy. 2008 Apr;86(1):17-26.

Stewart DC, George J, Bond CM, Cunningham IT, Diack HL, McCaig DJ. Exploring patients’ perspectives of pharmacist supplementary prescribing in Scotland. Pharm World Sci. 2008;30:892-7.

[No authors listed]. The case for preventing ovarian cancer. Lancet. 2008 Jan 26;371(9609):275.

Shortridge E, Miller K. Contraindications to oral contraceptive use among women in the United States, 1999-2001. Contraception. 2007;75(5):355-60.

Chin-Quee DS, Cuthbertson C, Janowitz B. Over-the-counter pill provision: Evidence from Jamaica. Stud Fam Plann. 2006;37(2):99-110.

Foster DG, Parvataneni R, Thiel de Bocanegra H, Lewis C, Bradsberry M, Darney P. Number of oral contraceptive pill packages dispensed, method continuation, and costs. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(5):1107-14.

Grossman D, Ellertson C, Abuabara K, Blanchard K. Barriers to contraceptive use present in product labeling and practice guidelines. Am J Pub Health. 2006;96(5):791-9.
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Landau SC, Tapias MP, Taylor McGhee B. Birth control within reach: a national survey on women’s attitudes toward and interest in pharmacy access to hormonal contraception. Contraception. 2006;74:463-70.
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Shotorbani S, Miller L, Blough DK, Gardner J. Agreement between women’s and providers’ assessment of hormonal contraceptive risk factors. Contraception. 2006;73(5):501-6.

Yeatman SE, Potter JE, Grossman DA. Over-the-counter access, changing WHO guidelines, and the prevalence of contraindicated oral contraceptive use in Mexico. Stud Fam Plann. 2006; 37(3):197–204.
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Becker D, Garcia SG, Ellertson C. Do Mexico City pharmacy workers screen women for health risks when they sell oral contraceptive pills over-the-counter? Contraception . 2004;69:295-9.

Moos MK, Bartholomew NE, Lohr KN. Counseling in the clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy: an evidence-based research agenda. Contraception. 2003;67(2):115-32.

Mead H. Making birth control more accessible to women: a cost-benefit analysis of over-the-counter oral contraceptives. IWPR. 2001;A126:1-9.

Ratanajamit C, Chongsuvivatwong V. Survey of knowledge and practice on oral contraceptive and emergency contraceptive pills of drugstore personnel in Hat Yai, Thailand. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2001;10:149-56.

Shah MA, Shah NM, Al-Rahmani E, Behbehani J, Radovanovic Z. Over-the-counter use of oral contraceptives in Kuwait. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;73(3):243-51.

[No authors listed]. No over-the-counter OCs, say family planners. Contracept Technol Update. 1998 Oct;19(10):128.
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Forman SF, Emans SJ, Kelly L, Beal J, Goodman E. Attitudes of female college students toward over-the-counter availability of oral contraceptives. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 1997;10:203-7.

Youngkin EQ, Davis MR, Kolb KW. Making oral contraceptives available over-the-counter. Nurse Pract. 1996;21:13,133-4,43-4.

Grimes DA. Over-the-counter oral contraceptives: an idea whose time has not quite come! Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1995;50(6):411-2.

Murphy P, Kirkman A, Hale RW. A national survey of women’s attitudes toward oral contraception and other forms of birth control. Womens Health Issues. 1995;5(2):94-9.

Potts M, Denny C. Safety implications of transferring the oral contraceptive from prescription-only to over-the-counter status. Drug Saf. 1995;13(6):333-7.

Halperin EC. Oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication. N C Med J. 1994;55(5): 183-6.

Grimes DA. Editorial: Over-the-counter oral contraceptives–an immodest proposal? Am J Pub Health. 1993;83(8):1092-4.
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Trussell J, Stewart F, Potts M, Guest F, Ellertson C. Should oral contraceptives be available without prescription? Am J Pub Health. 1993 Aug;83(8):1094-9.
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Zavala AS, Perez-Gonzales M, Miller P, Welsh M, Wilkens LR, Potts M. Reproductive risks in a community-based distribution program of oral contraceptives, Matamoros, Mexico. Stud Fam Plann. 1987 Sep-Oct;18(5):284-90.

Measham AR. Self-prescription of oral contraceptives in Bogota, Colombia. Contraception. 1976;13:333-40.

Atkinson L, Castadot R, Cuadros A, Rosenfield AG. Oral contraceptives: Considerations of safety in nonclinical distribution. Stud Fam Plann. 1974;5:242-9.

Black TR. Oral contraceptive prescription requirements and commercial availability in 45 developing countries. Stud Fam Plann. 1974;5:250-4.

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News Articles and Commentary

Thielking M. Pressure mounts on drug makers to move birth control over the counter. STAT. 2018 Jun 8.  
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Young J.A. Truth about contraceptives. The Times Argus. 2018 Apr 26. 
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Leriche L. Birth control not an optional expense. Stowe Reporter. 2018 Apr 19.
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McDonald-Mosley R. Opinion: Black women need better access to reproductive healthcare. Black Press USA. 2018 Mar 20.
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Press Release Planned Parenthood Vermont action fund pushes passage of H.869. VT Digger. 2018. Feb 22.  
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Fratti K. Why isn’t birth control available over the counter? Turns out, it already should be. Hello Giggles. 2018. Feb 19.  
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Kirk E. There’s no good reason why the pill shouldn’t be available over the counter. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2018 Feb 9.   
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Grossman D and Grindlay Kelly K. These birth control pills should be available without a prescription. Teen Vogue. 2018 Feb 2.  
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Prax M. Getting birth control over the counter has a sticking point. AOL. 2017 Dec 30. 
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Singer J. End the ban on over-the-counter oral contraceptives. STAT. 2017 Dec 19.
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Sheridan K. Birth control apps make life easier, but women shouldn’t even need them. Newsweek. 2017 Oct 25. 
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Hinkle A.B. Here’s how to end the fight over birth control. Richmond Times-Dispatch. 2017 Oct 17.  
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Reinbrecht S. Little Packs of Pills. The Scarlet. 2017 Oct 6.  
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Klabusich K. Advocates set sights on OTC birth control pill on world contraception day. Rewire.News. 2017 Sep 26.  
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Quinlan C. Getting access to birth control pills remains frustratingly difficult in the US. Think Progress. 2017 Sep 26.  
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McGowan E. What’s the future of contraception? Over-the-counter birth control is finally a real possibility. Bustle. 2017 Sep 26.   
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Singer J. Oral contraceptives should be free (from the third party trap). Cato Institute. 2017 Sep 5.    
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Singer J. Free birth control from the third-party trap. Morning Consult. 2017 Sep 1.   
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Brown H.L. Letter: Groups offering ‘smart policy’ on birth control misses the mark. The Hill. 2017 Aug 24.     
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News Staff AAFP addresses contraceptive access and coverage with FDA, CMS. AAFP. 2017 Aug 21.    
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Kitchens C. It’s time for the feds to stop micromanaging birth control in the US. The HillI. 2017 Aug 20.    
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Alperstein O. From the left: birth control should be free, not over the counter. Inside Sources. 2017 Jul 15.   
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Manning H.H. From the right: yes, birth control pills should be available over the counter. Inside Sources. 2017 Jul 16.   
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Liss-Schultz N. Trump be dammed: states are fighting to make birth control over-the-country (finally). Mother Jones. 2017 June 20.   
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Pierucci R. Is over-the-counter contraception for teens a good idea?. The Federalist. 2017 Jun 15.  
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Wahlin B. A step forward of birth control access. The Washington Post. 2017 Jun 9.  
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Sundstrom B. Free the pill: support dependable contraceptive access. Huffington Post. 2017 Jun 8. 
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Shye R. Could OTC birth control be coming to pharmacies soon? GoodRx. 2017 Jun 7.
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Freimuth M. How does American health care compare to Taiwan?. Huffington Post. 2017 May 17. 
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Sundstrom B. Support dependable contraceptive access. WREN. 2017 May 15. 
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Heath H. It’s time to make birth control available over the counter. Independent Women’s Forum. 2017 Apr 27. 
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Medical News Bulletin Staff Should adolescents have over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives? Medical News Bulletin. 2017 Apr 25. 
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Marshall J. Review team recommends making the pill an over-the-counter drug. Contracept.org. 2017 Apr 6.
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Associated Staff Experts find strong case for over-the-counter oral contraceptives for adults and teens. DoveMed. 2017 Mar 25.
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Watson R. Birth control should be cheap and easy, over the counter!. Skepchick. 2017 Mar 24.
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June L. Teenage girls can and should have over-the-counter birth control pills. The Outline. 2017 Mar 21.
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Kirkham B. Over-the-counter birth control is totally safe for teenagers – so why isn’t it a reality?. Bust. 2017 Mar 20.
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Associated Staff Sell birth control pills over the counter to teens? Lukor. 2017 Mar 20.
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Paoletta R. It’s time to make birth control accessible over-the-counter, for everyone. Gizmodo. 2017 Mar 20.
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Associated Staff Birth control pills may soon be available without a prescription. Morningside Maryland. 2017 Mar 20.
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Gebelhoff R.  It’s time we finally offer over-the-counter birth control pills. The Washington Post. 2017 Mar 20. 
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Ratner P. Give teens over-the-counter birth control pills, say researchers. Big Think. 2017 Mar 18.
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McNamara B. Over-the-counter birth control safe for teens, research finds. Teen Vogue. 2017 Mar 17.
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Tantibanchachai C. Sell birth control pills over the counter to teens?. Futurity. 2017 Mar 17. 
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Koh E. Should teens get birth control pill over-the-counter? Some doctors say yes. The News & Observer. 2017 Mar 17. 
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Staff Writer Researchers find strong case for over-the-counter oral contraceptives for adults and teens. Youth Health. 2017 Mar 16. 
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Associated Staff Calls to give teenagers the contraceptive pill over counter. The Herald. 2017 Mar 16. 
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Kimont K. Over-the-counter birth control pills are safe for teens, new research suggests. Romper. 2017 Mar 16. 
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Hersher R. Over-the-counter birth control pills would be safe for teens, researchers say. NPR. 2017 Mar 16.
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Ames C. Non-prescription birth control pills. WTAJ. 2017 Mar 15.
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Associated Staff Experts find strong case for making ‘the pill’ available over the counter. The Hub at Johns Hopkins. 2017 Mar 15. 
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Associated Staff OTC Oral Contraceptives for Adults, Teens?. Pharmacy Times. 2017 Mar 15.
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Cohn M. Hopkins-led study find ‘the pill’ would be safe without prescription. The Baltimore Sun. 2017 Mar 15.
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KCEN Staff. Experts make case for over-the-counter birth control pills. KCENTV. 2017 Mar 14.
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Ernst D. New review makes the case for OTC oral contraceptives. MPR. 2017 Mar 14.
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MedPage Today Staff OTC Birth Control and Teens (Journal of Adolescent Health). MedPage Today. 2017 Mar 14.  
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Johnsen M. Researchers from Johns Hopkins Medicine recommend OTC availability for contraceptives. Drug Store News. 2017 Mar 14.
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Wallace A. Experts urge over-the-counter contraceptives for teens, adults. UPI. 2017 Mar 14.
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Emery LH. Over-the-counter birth control pills could have huge benefits for teens, experts say. Bustle. 2017 Mar 14.
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Associated Staff Experts find strong case for over-the-counter oral contraceptives for adults and teens. Science Daily. 2017 Mar 14.
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Cate S. Op-ed: Rep. Lowe on right track with over-the-counter birth control. The Salt Lake Tribune. 2017 Mar 12.
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[back to top]

Public Opinion Surveys:

Anderson KS. Poll: Young Republicans, birth control, and public policy. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. 2015 March.
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Riccardi N and Agiesta J. Poll: Economy, health care eclipse social issues. The Washington Times. 2014 October 31.
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Grindlay K, Foster DG, Grossman D. Attitudes toward over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives among a sample of abortion clients in the United States. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2014;46(2):83-8.
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Grossman D, Grindlay K, Li R, Potter JE, Trussell J, Blanchard K. Interest in over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives among women in the United States. Contraception. 2013;88(4):544-52.
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Reason.com. Reason-Rupe public opinion survey: May 2013 topline results. Reason.com. 2013 May 17.
Click here to access

Dennis A, Grossman D. Barriers to contraception and interest in over-the-counter access among low-income women: A qualitative study. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012 June;44(2).
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Grossman D, Fernández L, Hopkins K, Amastae J, Potter JE. Perceptions of the safety of oral contraceptives among a predominantly Latina population in Texas. Contraception. 2010 Mar;81:254–60.
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Landau SC, Tapias MP, Taylor McGhee B. Birth control within reach: a national survey on women’s attitudes toward and interest in pharmacy access to hormonal contraception. Contraception. 2006;74:463-70.
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Conference Abstracts:

Lara D, Grossman D, Martinez G, Hernandez A, Amastae J. Use of oral contraceptives among hypertensive Latinas on the Texas-Mexico border. APHA Annual Meeting; Denver, CO; 2010 November 9: 223099.
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Grossman D, McKinnon S, Hopkins K, Amastae J, Potter JE. Knowledge regarding oral contraceptive use, risks and benefits among clinic and pharmacy users in El Paso, Texas, and the impact of written information. APHA Annual Meeting; Philadelphia, PA; 2009 November 11: 202720.
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Allina A, Pearson C. Making contraception easier and promoting women’s health: What is the role of the Rx requirement for the pill? APHA Annual Meeting; San Diego, CA; 2008 October 27: 184196.
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Blanchard K, Grossman D. Safety and effectiveness of OCs: Making the case for an OTC switch. APHA Annual Meeting; San Diego, CA; 2008 October 27: 185412.
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Grossman D, Blanchard K. Provider perspective: What do clinicians and pharmacists think about OTC provision of OCs? APHA Annual Meeting; San Diego, CA; 2008 October 27: 184687.
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Lopez D. Bait and switch: Will over-the-counter oral contraceptives expand access and use among women of color and low-income women? APHA Annual Meeting; San Diego, CA; 2008 October 27: 183900.
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Links to Related Projects

Australian National Health Amendment (Fifth Community Pharmacy Agreement Initiatives) Bill 2011: allows pharmacists to dispense one pack of oral contraceptives to women who previously had the medication prescribed by a doctor
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New Zealand Submission for Reclassification of Selected Oral Contraceptives: to allow supply without prescription by pharmacists
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NHS Lambeth and Southwark pilot program: provides OCs directly in pharmacies in London
About
Final Report: Evaluation of Oral Contraception in Community Pharmacy Pilot in Southwark and Lambeth

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Professional Organization Resolutions or Policies Related to OCs OTC

American Medical Association (AMA) Resolution No 110-A-17: Over-the-counter contraceptive drug access. June 2018.
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American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) Resolution No 501: Endorse access without age restriction to over-the-counter oral contraceptive pills. April 2016.
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American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) Resolution: The AAFP supports over-the-counter access to oral contraception without a prescription. July 2014.
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American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Statement on Pharmacist Prescribing Laws 2016 January 4.
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American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion No 615: Access to contraception. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015; 125(1):250–5.
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American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion No 544: Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2012, reaffirmed 2016; 120(6): 1527-31.
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American Medical Association Resolution D-75.995 (Sub. Res. 507, A-13): Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. American Medical Association. 2013.
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American Medical Association – Medical Student Section Resolution 4: Over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. American Medical Association. 2013.
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American Public Health Association Policy Statement: Improving access to over-the-counter contraception by expanding insurance coverage. Policy number 20111, November 2011.
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Women’s Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Opinion Statement: McIntosh J, Rafie S, Wasik M, McBane S, Lodise NM, El-Ibiary SY, et al. Changing oral contraceptives from prescription to over-the-counter status: An opinion statement of the Women’s Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy. 2011 Apr;31(4):424-37.
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Other Resources

US Food and Drug Administration. Response to citizen petition to make oral contraceptives available over the counter. 2016 December.
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Ibis Reproductive Health. Over-the-counter birth control pills: background on progestin-only pills. 2016 September.
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Ibis Reproductive Health. Moving the birth control pill over the counter. 2015 July.
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Ibis Reproductive Health. Advocates’ opinions on moving oral contraceptives over the counter. 2015 May.
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Ibis Reproductive Health. A national survey of US women’s interest in over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives. 2013 June 3.
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National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health: Over-the-counter birth control will benefit Latina health. 2012 November 20.
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Grossman D. Comments to FDA on Docket No. FDA–2012–N–0171: Conditions of safe use and hormonal contraception. 2012 May 6.
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Native American Community Board. Indigenous women’s dialogue: Roundtable report on the accessibility of Plan B as an over the counter (OTC) within Indian Health Service. Native American Women’s Health Education Resource Center. 2012 February.
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US Food and Drug Association, Department of Health and Human Services. [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0171] Notice of public hearing: Using innovative technologies and other conditions of safe use to expand which drug products can be considered nonprescription; Public Hearing.
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Reproductive Health Technologies Project. Fact Sheet: “Is there estrogen from birth control in my water?!?” Washington, DC: Reproductive Health Technologies Project. December 2010.
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Fogel SB, Reid DA. Fact Sheet: Expanding access to over-the-counter family planning drugs and supplies. Washington, DC: National Health Law Program. November 2009.
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Blanchard K. RE: Docket No. 2007N-0356 in the October 4, 2007 Federal Register (Vol 72; No 192). Comment to: FDA Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305). 2007 December 17.
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